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Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from north africa

Prev Chronic Dis ; Overweight and obesity are associated with increased rates of chronic disease and death globally. In Kenya, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women is high and may be growing.

Prevalence and Predictors of Overweight and Obesity Among Kenyan Women

This study aimed to determine the national prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among women in Kenya. Data on body mass index for 13, women aged 15—49 y were analyzed by using multivariable logistic regression models. Overweight and obesity were classified by using World Health Organization categories normal weight, The prevalence of overweight was A high proportion of women in Kenya are overweight or obese.

Our study indicates that women from urban areas and women with high socioeconomic status make up the largest proportion of women who are overweight or obese. Targeted and tailored studies and interventions are needed to identify evidence-based obesity prevention strategies for high-risk women in Kenya.

Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has more than doubled since 1. Inmore than 1. The rate of overweight and obesity is higher among women than among men worldwide 1. Overweight and obesity is associated with a higher prevalence of major cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases 2—5. Additionally, overweight or obese women are at substantially higher risk of negative maternal outcomes such as gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, induction of labor, cesarean sections, and postpartum hemorrhage 3,6.

prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from north africa

Overweight and obesity affects more than the health of the woman; it also affects the health outcomes of offspring. For pregnant mothers, overweight and obesity increases risk for neonatal death and malformations and the delivery of low-birth-weight infants 3,6. Children born of mothers who are overweight or obese, compared with children born of mothers who are not overweight or obese, are less likely to be breastfed, are breastfed for shorter lengths of time, have a higher risk of chronic conditions, and are more likely to be overweight or obese 3,7.

Furthermore, undernutrition during childhood is also associated with increased obesity risk; as a result, some countries have a double burden of undernutrition and overweight and obesity 1,8. Rates of overweight and obesity among women are increasing in low-income and middle-income countries LMICs 4,9— A growing body of literature demonstrates the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among women in sub-Saharan Africa 11, This increasing prevalence is associated with urbanization, access to and consumption of high-calorie diets, and decreased physical activity 12— Women in sub-Saharan Africa are also faced with adverse maternal and child health outcomes; therefore, overweight and obesity may aggravate maternal and child health challenges 15, In Kenya, regional studies reported a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among women than among men; in one study, Overweight and obesity in Kenya increases the risk for raised blood glucose levels 20 and high blood pressure 20, Similar to predictors in other LMICs, predictors for overweight and obesity in Kenya include living in urban areas, high income, and high levels of education 4,5,8,14,17,18,22, Studies conducted among slum dwellers also provide evidence of high rates of overweight and obesity among low-income groups One explanation for higher rates of overweight and obesity among high-income groups is consumption behaviors.

In urban Kenya, one study found that high-income women had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and were more likely to consume high-caloric, high-fat, and high-protein foods associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity Other predictors among women include increased age, increased parity, being divorced or widowed, higher alcohol intake, insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables, and decreased physical activity 8, Despite emerging literature on the scope of overweight and obesity in Kenya, a gap exists in understanding nationwide predictors of overweight and obesity among women.

Studies are mainly regional 18,23 or among selected groups such as slum dwellers 19, The objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence and explore predictors of overweight and obesity among Kenyan women by using data from the most recent administration of the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey KDHS.

prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from north africa

This study used secondary data from the KDHS. For each participant, verbal consent was obtained before the interview and data collection Details about the sampling, survey design, survey instruments, and quality control are described elsewhere The KDHS used 2-stage stratified random sampling.Boulos, Wagida A.

The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe.

The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam males: The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents.

Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic. The prevalence of nutritional disorders has been increasing worldwide in recent years. This increase, which has been termed a global, 1—3 is part of a broader nutritional transition characterized by lifestyle and diet changes 4 in a context of rapid economic development. People living in developing countries, such as those of North Africa, and immigrant populations in developed countries are particularly at risk, and nutritional disorders have become a rapidly growing threat to their public health.

In most developing countries, urbanization is a major factor involved in the high prevalence of obesity. Although Africa is the least urbanized continent, its population is becoming increasingly urban and its cities are growing at unprecedented rates. Despite widespread poverty in North African cities, there is easier access to cheap foods with high fat and sugar contents among the urban poor than among the rural population.

Calorie expenditure is also higher in rural people because of agricultural work and lower use of transportation systems; in contrast, urban people ride motorcycles, cars or buses. Contrary to what occurs in developed countries where low socio-economic status SES and poor neighbourhoods are associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases, 1819 an inverse or low SES—high adiposity association has been reported in Africa.

Overweight & Obesity Statistics

Nevertheless, few studies have examined these associations over time, making it difficult to assess the socio-economic differences in the rate of progression to overweight and obesity in urban Africa. Despite the alarming effects of obesity on health, economy and society, national strategies to combat obesity do not exist in North African countries. Thus far, obesity has not been recognized as a major public health priority, and convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity will be a crucial first step.

The health status of immigrants is a research field of growing interest. In addition to being important for public health, it allows the formulation of hypotheses on the role of environmental vs.

Several studies have shown that chronic disease patterns in immigrants rapidly change and become similar to those of their new host country. The origin of this so-called Mediterranean migrant paradox 51 may be linked to a healthier lifestyle, e. Mediterranean migrants could have a healthier traditional diet than the local-born population.

However, the causes of this paradox are still not well documented. The aim of this review was to evaluate and compare the prevalence of overweight or obesity in North African populations to identify differences in health risks among countries, between genders and between residents and immigrants in Europe. We examined the literature on overweight or obesity status of North Africans living in their own countries or as immigrants in Europe. In addition, data on physical inactivity as a risk factor were collected on these populations where available.

Reference lists of all the papers identified were examined to search for other non-indexed studies. Local studies on this topic, suggested by co-authors of this review, were also examined because of the paucity of data.The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously.

In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe.

The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents.

prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from north africa

Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam males: The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents.

Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic.

All rights reserved. Abstract The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. Publication types Review.Boulos, Wagida A. The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe.

The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam males: The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents.

Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from North Africa. N2 - The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. Overview Fingerprint. Abstract The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously.

Access to Document Link to publication in Scopus. Link to citation list in Scopus. In: European journal of public healthVol. European journal of public health. In: European journal of public health. AU - Anwar, Wagida A.Obesity rates are rapidly increasing in the African Region, as in most parts of the world. Overweight and obesity, particularly in urban settings, are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attacks and a variety of cancers.

Top 10 African Countries With the Most Obese Population

There is a common misconception that obesity and other noncommunicable diseases NCDs only occur among the wealthy. Poorer populations are experiencing high double-burdens of infectious and chronic diseases. The greatest risk factors for dying of NCDs are complications with infectious diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, streptococcus, human papillomavirus, viral hepatitis, rubella and parasitic diseases such as malaria.

Obesity is affected by many factors including food choices, sedentary lifestyles, genetics and cultural beliefs. Counterproductively, many countries in the Region view obesity as a sign of prosperity. Sedentary lifestyles are affected by changing modes of transportation, types of work and increasing rates of urbanization.

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index BMI is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. BMI provides the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults.

However, it should be considered a rough guide because it may not correspond to the same degree of fatness in different individuals. Inan estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight or obese. Once considered a high-income country problem, overweight and obesity are now on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. In Africa, the number of children who are overweight or obese has nearly doubled from 5.

Nearly half of the children under 5 who were overweight or obese in lived in Asia. Overweight and obesity are linked to more deaths worldwide than underweight. Globally there are more people who are obese than underweight — this occurs in every region except parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. Globally, there has been:. Changes in dietary and physical activity patterns are often the result of environmental and societal changes associated with development and lack of supportive policies in sectors such as health, agriculture, transport, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing, and education.

Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of obesity, premature death and disability in adulthood. But in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience breathing difficulties, increased risk of fractures, hypertension, early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and psychological effects.

Children in low- and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to inadequate pre-natal, infant, and young child nutrition. At the same time, these children are exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, and micronutrient-poor foods, which tend to be lower in cost but also lower in nutrient quality. These dietary patterns, in conjunction with lower levels of physical activity, result in sharp increases in childhood obesity while undernutrition issues remain unsolved.

Overweight and obesity, as well as their related noncommunicable diseases, are largely preventable. Individual responsibility can only have its full effect where people have access to a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, at the societal level it is important to support individuals in following the recommendations above, through sustained implementation of evidence based and population based policies that make regular physical activity and healthier dietary choices available, affordable and easily accessible to everyone, particularly to the poorest individuals.Obesity in the Middle East and North Africa is a notable health issue.

Inthe WHO measured that 1. It estimated that by the year2. Subsequently, some call this trend the New World Syndrome. Urbanization has occurred rapidly and has been accompanied by new technologies that promote sedentary lifestyles. The rise in caloric and fat intake in a region where exercise is not a defining part of the culture has added to the overall increased percentages of overweight and obese populations.

The medical condition of being overweight or obesity is defined as "abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health". If an individual has a BMI of 25—29, he or she is overweight. Having a BMI of 30 or more means an individual is obese. The greater the BMI, the greater the risk of chronic diseases as a result of obesity.

These diseases include cardiovascular diseasesdiabetesmusculoskeletal disorderscancerand premature death. In addition, the types of food and fat intake have changed Other common factors, besides a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy food choices, across the Arab world include urbanization, [2] technology, [4] and a cultural appreciation of female plumpness [8] and the practice of leblouh "fattening".

In —, Obesity and being overweight is higher among women for several reasons. A majority of women do not have jobs outside of the home and lead more sedentary lifestyles as a result. Housework is often the only source of physical activity for women, as there is no prior tradition of women participating in sports. Individuals living in urban areas are more likely to be overweight or obese because of the availability of public transportation and the sedentary lifestyle.

A lack of knowledge about diabetes and the health consequences also contribute to the high percentage of excessive weight. Women in lower classes were four times as likely to be overweight or obese as women in upper classes.

Only The frequency of exercise among the Jewish Israeli population was twice as high as that for the Arab population. Men and women of Jewish descent are less likely to be of an unhealthy weight then Arab men and women. The current trend towards obesity is influenced by more than the shift from traditional Mediterranean to fast food.

Individuals who had a low level of education, were non-smokers, and had a family history of obesity were more likely to have an unhealthy body weight. Increased consumption of fast food and predominance of sedentary lifestyles have led to this occurrence. These unhealthy eating habits are reinforced in school canteens, where high fat and high carbohydrate foods such as pizza, burgers, sandwiches, and za'atarare available for lunch. Between meal times, children prefer French fries, chocolate, and soda, which lack micronutrients and dietary fiber.

From tothe percentage of individuals age 18—29 that were overweight rose from The increased risk of excess weight or obesity is due to a combination of overeating energy-dense, high-fat foods and sedentary lifestyles.

Advertisements for unhealthy junk food are seen everywhere and public schools sell candy, chocolate, and soda to their students. The key factors to these high obesity levels are the adoption of eating habits in the Western lifestyle. The youth population consumes more fat, milk, and meat than previous generations. It is also ranked 5th for having the highest percentage of people between 20 and 79 with diabetes. One reason for the obesity trend is the lack of exercise and poorly designed pedestrian friendly cities.

Food is often consumed communally, making it nearly impossible to ensure proper portions. A person who does not eat when food is offered is seen as offensive and shameful. It is also normal within Qatari society to be obese.

Across the whole population from —, InCOVID is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Get the latest public health information from CDC: www. A person whose weight is higher than what is considered as a normal weight adjusted for height is described as being overweight or having obesity. BMI is the tool most commonly used to estimate and screen for overweight and obesity in adults and children. BMI is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.

For most people, BMI is related to the amount of fat in their bodies, which can raise the risk of many health problems. Children grow at different rates at different times, so it is not always easy to tell if a child is overweight. Factors that may contribute to weight gain among adults and youth include genes, eating habits, physical inactivity, TV, computer, phone, and other screen time, sleep habits, medical conditions or medications, and where and how people live, including their access to healthy foods and safe places to be active.

Overweight and obesity are risk factors for many health problems such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, joint problems, and gallstones, among other conditions. Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances.

Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses.

Obesity Rates Across Africa

Find out if clinical trials are right for you. Clinical trials that are currently open and recruiting can be viewed at www. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Defining Overweight and Obesity A person whose weight is higher than what is considered as a normal weight adjusted for height is described as being overweight or having obesity.

More than 2 in 3 adults were considered to be overweight or have obesity. More than 1 in 3 adults were considered to have obesity. About 1 in 13 adults were considered to have extreme obesity. About 1 in 6 children and adolescents ages 2 to 19 were considered to have obesity. The tables below show BMI ranges for overweight and obesity.

As shown in the above bar graph Among non-Hispanic white adults, more than 1 in 3 Among non-Hispanic black adults, almost half Among Hispanic adults, about 1 in 2 Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, about 1 in 8 According to the above bar graph Among children and adolescents ages 2 to 19, about 1 in 6 Young children ages 2 to 5 had a lower prevalence of obesity than older youth, about 1 in 11 9.

Less than 2 percent of young children were considered to have extreme obesity. Among children and youth ages 6 to 11, about 1 in 6 Among adolescents, ages 12 to 19, about 1 in 5 More recently, betweenthe prevalence of overall obesity and extreme obesity increased significantly among women, however, there were no significant increases for men. Changes over Time—Children and Adolescents 3,5 The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents 2 to 19 years increased between and Since this time there has been no significant change in prevalence.